Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

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Practical & socially relevant technical projects, internship


In order to achieve these goals, assignments, projects and internship activities can include the perceived impact on widespread usage of the technology, practice in society.


The teachers & students can develop a ‘holistic perspective’ where they are able to visualize a life of social-participation and connectedness with the family, society as well as environment/nature (a shift from self-centeredness).


Through projects & internship, they can experience people who are making effort in this direction; are living-examples, particularly in their family, in their village and in the state.


Relevant data can be collected, collated and understood; and a wholesome way of living can become clear; this would be another step toward a humane society.


Facilitating teachers & students to develop their understanding is the focus of these projects and activities.


Social Projects may be done during the semester or during the holiday period. The report should be evaluated by teachers; and it should be submitted (uploaded) to PTU VE Cell for consolidation.


Social Internship may be an appropriate duration like 1 month during holiday period. Internship can be matched to students’ background and interest. E.g. Natural Farming for a student from an agricultural background and/or interest.


Final Year Projects can be chosen on the basis of their relevance for developing right understanding while keeping in mind human-human relationship as well as physical facilities with rest-of-nature. Whatever is done with physical facilities can take in consideration local requirements (socially relevant) as well as mutual fulfillment with rest-of-nature (environmentally mutually fulfilling). For instance a gassifier power generation project can ensure locally available renewable input resource like wood (instead of oil or coal). At least a section about the student’s understanding of its relevance should be included in the report.


Family members can be encouraged to participate in these activities, like visiting social organizations and study projects of interest to implementation. The focus is understanding and practice (and not just marks).


Consider all dimensions of one’s being while considering relevance or impact, and not just what is visible outside. At the level of the individual, that would be

1. understanding/realization

2. feeling/thought

3. behaviour with human beings and

4. work with rest-of-nature

What is visible is behaviour and work. The understanding/realization and thought/feeling are internal, and not necessarily immediately visible. However this is what drives the behaviour and work. So any impact would first take place in these dimensions.


Further, the expression of living is at four levels, viz.

1. at the individual level

2. at the level of family

3. at the level of society and

4. at the level of nature/existence


Another point that comes up is what is the meaning of “practical implementation”. Currently a result in terms of physical facilities may be considered “practical implementation”. However, lasting impact is in one’s understanding and relationship, in addition to physical facilities. We will consider the impact on all three dimensions, namely

1. right understanding in the self

2. relationship with other human-beings as well as

3. physical facilities with rest-of-nature

Comprehensive progress or development includes all three. For example, in addition to physical facilities, clarity in the self (right understanding) + trust in family (relationship) are also important parameters of progress.


In brief, beyond just the outcome on physical facility, a project must cover all the three aspects, in order of priority:

  1. the right understanding aspect
  2. the thinking & learning aspect and
  3. the doing/physical facility aspect


So, whatever project or activity is taken up, it must reinforce right understanding. With this clarity we can select projects and activities.


We can illustrate this point with the help of an example:

  • Following things can be reinforced by taking a project of  tree plantation:
    • Understanding that human being can live with the rest of the nature in a mutually fulfilling manner.
    • Our participation (bhagidari) in this Existence includes ensuring Enrichment, Protection and Right Utilization of rest of the nature. So, we need to ensure that we rightly utilize the products from the trees, like fruit, vegetables, wood etc. We also need to ensure that we are protecting and nurturing the trees that we have planted and have not damaged existing trees while planting the new ones.
    • If we pay attention to all these points then it means that tree plantation helps us in developing our understanding.
    • If we are doing tree plantation just to get respect, press coverage, tick mark on an activity sheet etc. then it means that we have not understood (the main point), and therefore this project would not be a worthy thing to do.


Another example: The projects are basically for reinforcing understanding (and not for reinforcing preconditioning). A natural farming project would be successful if it facilitates:

1. understanding of the mutual fulfilment in the 4 orders in Nature (you can track if teachers/students do the nurturing & protection of the plants without being forced - this would be one indicator of their understanding. E.g. Watering regularly, weeding regularly, protecting from pests/animals while leaving adequate leeway for birds)

2. Understanding about right utilisation of physical facility. E.g. Do teachers/students harvest the vegetables at the right time regularly. What % of the harvested vegetables are used. What is done with the left-over vegetables? You can also track food wastage in the student messes

3. Skills related to natural farming

If the project has to be centrally controlled, on a forced schedule. If the aim is profit or reducing imports or it is for showing others, like news coverage etc., then the project is not worthwhile.



Students can be given relevant projects as individuals or in groups. Projects can be of three types:

1.     Study – Observing/Recognizing/Survey/Proposing a solution. e.g. finding out the change in water table in the local area and potential sustainable solutions

2.     Modelling/Prototyping – Analysing, doing on a small scale and for a short term. e.g. developing a prototype of a pedal driven generator

3.     Implementing  – on some scale & for the long term. e.g. establishing an evening school for the local community


Example of a Study Project: Find out the quantity of food-grain (rice, wheat, corn, jowar etc.) that your family consumes annually. Taking this as the base, find out the total requirement of food-grain for your country. Find out the total production of food-grain in your country. Is the production sufficient? Articulate your conclusions.

Total Population                                                = 113 crore

Total Production                                                = 23000 crore kg

If Total Requirement is 100 kg/year/person, then the total requirement is 11300 crore kg/year (which is an over-estimate as we have not taken the average age. Small children need less, older people also need less).

Conclusions: Food-grain available in India is just about 2 times the need. The problem is not of food-grain production or over-population, it is of mindset, of wrong assumptions, lack of feeling of relationship and, at the core, lack of right understanding. A full 30-page report (1-Food Assignment.pdf) is attached as a sample report.


Projects should lead toward holistic development. Clarity on human goal (manaviya lakshya) and human order (vyavastha) can provide the direction for project efforts.


We have understood the human target as a society to be:

  1. Right Understanding in every human being
  2. Prosperity in every Family
  3. Fearlessness (Trust) in society and
  4. Co-existence with Nature/in Existence


In the absence of this clarity of human goal, most of the time & effort is spent on accumulation of physical facilities- that too in just a few individuals, leading to mistrust between people as well as resource depletion and pollution in rest-of-nature. So we do not suggest that one delve into the details of exclusively finding out “what is happening”. A detailed study of the current state can be helpful (what not to do) if there is clarity on human goal (what to do) and some direction for “what to do” and a project (action) for it is the bulk of the effort.


Some sample topics:

1.     Find out the quantity of food-grain (rice, wheat, corn, jowar etc.) that your family consumes annually. Taking this as the base, find out the total requirement of food-grain for your country. Find out the total production of food-grain in your country. Is the production sufficient? Articulate your conclusions

2.     What do we consider important as a family? Is our time and effort applied for what we consider important? What do we evaluate at the end of every month? Discuss this at home and articulate your conclusions

3.     Does my family have sufficient physical facilities for my physical needs? Is my family prosperous? What do we need for feeling prosperous? Discuss this at home and articulate your conclusions

4.     Find out how much water is available (rain, rivers, canals), how much water is needed

5.     Find out how much rice husk is produced annually, how much is used, how much is destroyed & how it can be rightly used, say, to generate power

6.     Find out about power generation from rice husk & similar ‘waste’ material. Is this system avartansheel?

7.     Finding out the change in water table in the local area and suggesting possible sustainable solutions

8.     List Socially Relevant Work in your state, nearby states, whole country, nearby countries, whole world

9.     What is one valuable lessons from your tradition? Study its impact on Trust in your family

14.  Document your understanding of the meaning of Health of your Body and the Program for Health

11.  Study food security on the basis of relationship (traditional langar pratha in Punjab) vis-à-vis food security on the basis of shasan (GoI food security bill of 2013 and schemes like mid-day meal and Rs 2/kg rice)

12.  Survey the campus

13.  Study need of electricity, generation

14.  Solar thermal power plants

a.     http://www.india-one.net/abouttheproject.html

b.    http://www.tinytechindia.com/renewableenergy/solar.php?id=14

The 5 dimensions of human order are:

1.     EducationSanskar

2.     Health–Sanyam

3.     Production–Work

4.     Justice–Suraksha

5.     Exchange–Storage


Human science & technology is one that facilitates fulfillment of human target – from family to world family. Human science & technology would facilitate each of the 5 dimensions of human order.


Projects can be classified according to:

  1. Type: 1-Study, 2-Model/Prototype, 3-Implementation (a project can be of only one type. If it is not clear as to which type a project is, it needs to be reviewed before it is started)

2.     Dimension: One of the 5 dimensions of human order (use primary and secondary dimension if a project spans more than one dimension. If a project does not fall in any one dimension or it covers all the dimensions, it needs to be reviewed before it is started)


A sample list of social projects & social internship possibilities is appended below. The current list is in 2 attached files, one containing social projects and one containing social internships. The target is to have lists of at least 100 social projects and 100 social internship possibilities to start with.


1/ Projects in dimension 1-education-sanskar

The role of education is to facilitate the development of the competence to live with Definite Human Conduct by ensuring all 3 (Right Understanding, Relationships and Physical Facilities) –  in every Human Being.

Education = Developing Right Understanding.

Sanskar = Commitment/ Preparation/ Practice for Right Living. Preparation includes Learning Right Skills & Technology.

1.     Visit Riarki College (or watch the video). Share your observations on the method “each one teach one”. Further, you can share your observations on the impact on the local community  (dimension 1-education-sanskar, type 1-study)

2.     Read one chapter of a school (class 7-12) maths or science textbook. Relate this chapter to real life. E.g. the concept of inertia or LCM-HCF, integration-differentiation etc. (dimension 1-education-sanskar, type 2-model/prototype)

3.     Run an evening class on a topic like mathematics, science or human values for the local community (dimension 1-education-sanskar, type 2-model/prototype)

4.     Make a simple video using your cell-phone about a social issue like ‘how preconditioning is transferred in the society’ an example of which is “Ignored Truth (example of video students can make).FLV”. (dimension 1-education-sanskar, type 1-study)


2/ Projects in dimension 2-health-sanyam

Health-sanyam is to ensure health by appropriate ahar-vihar, shram-vyavam, asan-pranayam, aushadhi-chikitsa.

Health – the body is in order & acts according to the self.

Sanyam Feeling of responsibility for Nurturing, Protecting and Right Utilization of the Body

5.     Find out the quality of air and water in your village and in your house. What needs to be done so that the buildings in your village are eco-friendly? village (dimension 2-health-sanyam, type 1-study)

6.     Study the awareness about Health-Sanyam in your family/community/village (dimension 2-health-sanyam, type 1-study)

7.     Study the underlying assumptions in Ayurveda, Naturopathy, Homeopathy and Allopathy. Articulate your opinion (dimension 2-health-sanyam, type 1-study)


3/ Projects in dimension 3-production-work

Work – is the effort a human being does on the rest of nature.

Production – are the things obtained from work.

The important points about production-work are a) what to produce – necessary physical facilities – for nurturing, protecting and right utilisation of the body b) how to produce – by Avartansheel process – a process that is cyclic as well as mutually enriching and c) ensuring justice for the people involved in production

8.     Find out how much food is cooked, consumed, wasted per day in your hostel mess. Suggest ways to facilitate responsibility in food consumption (dimension 3-production-work, type 1-study)

  1. Make your campus self-sufficient on renewable energy using biogas, night soil, gassifier, solar power, wind power etc. (dimension 3-production-work, type 3-implementation)
  2. Find out the quantity of food-grain (rice, wheat, corn, jowar etc.) that your family consumes annually. Taking this as the base, find out the total requirement of food-grain for your village/state/country. Find out the total production of food-grain in your village/state/country. Is the production sufficient? Articulate your conclusions (dimension 3-production-work, type 1-study)
  3. Find out about power generation from rice husk & similar ‘waste’ material. Is this system avartansheel? What changes are needed to make it avartansheel? (dimension 3-production-work, type 1-study)

12.  Develop a prototype of a pedal driven generator (dimension 3-production-work, type 2-model/prototype)

13.  Survey your village using the CDP Survey form. Share your observations (dimension 3-production-work, type 1-study)


4/ Projects in dimension 4-justice-suraksha

Justice – Recognition of Human-Human Relationship, its fulfillment and evaluation leading to Mutual Happiness. We want to ensure Justice from family to world family.

Suraksha – Recognition of Human-Nature Relationship, its Fulfillment leading to Mutual Prosperity. i.e. prosperity in human being and suraksha (enrichment, protection & right utilization) of rest-of-nature. The immediate & fundamental issue here is right utilization. We want to ensure this from family order to world family order.

  1. Plan and try out a 'RED CARPET SOCIETY', the 'opposite' of ragging in your hostel. The students of this society will proactively set out to help the new students settle in and be comfortable in every way at the beginning of an academic session (dimension 4-justice-suraksha, type 2-model/prototype)
  2. Find out if your family has sufficient physical facilities. Is your family prosperous or deprived? Discuss this at home and articulate your conclusions (dimension 4-justice-suraksha, type 1-study)
  3. What is one valuable lesson from the tradition of Sanjha Chulah. The Study its impact on Trust in your family/community (dimension 4-justice-suraksha, type 1-study)
  4. Find out the water table level at 14 points in your district. Find out if there is an increase or decrease in the water table over the past 50 years. Is this rate of change sustainable over the next 50 years? What needs to be done to bring stability to the water table? Suggest a possible sustainable solution (dimension 4-justice-suraksha, type 1-study)
  5. What is one valuable lesson from the tradition of Langar. The Study its impact on deprivation in your community (dimension 4-justice-suraksha, type 1-study)
  6. Talk to your grandparents about the tradition of making “Gudadi”. Relate it to enrichment, conservation & right utilization of physical facilities (dimension 4-justice-suraksha, type 1-study)

20.  Read chapter 4 of “One Sun Two Worlds – An Ecological Journey”. Relate this to what is happening in your district. Share your key takeaways (dimension 4-justice-suraksha, type 1-study)


5/ Projects in dimension 5-exchange-storage

Exchange – of physical facilities for mutual fulfillment (not with madness of profit)

Storage – of physical facilities for right utilization in the future (not with madness of profit / of accumulation)

21.  Suggest how the supply chain for summer vegetables can be optimised to minimize distance & time between production and consumption for your college mess (the cost of transportation is a major component of the total cost of the food today) (dimension 5-exchange-storage, type 1-study)

22.  Read the book “Small is Beautiful”, EF Schumacher (many useful books, documentaries etc. can be reviewed). Articulate your takeaway about role of understanding, relationship, economics & money in society (dimension 5-exchange-storage, type 1-study)

23.  Watch the video “Food Inc.”. Articulate your takeaway about the 3 key lessons for our society, i.e. things to do or things to avoid doing (dimension 5-exchange-storage, type 1-study)



Project/Internship Report:

A brief, and precise project report and a very brief project summary is required.


Essential contents of the project report can be decided by the project guide & evaluator. Some suggested essential contents are:

  1. Objective (1/2 page)
  2. Facts (up to 14 pages)
  3. Analysis (up to 3 pages)
  4. Conclusions (1-2 pages)
  5. How this information can be useful for Humanistic Society (2-3 pages)
  6. Sum-Up (1/2 page)


A 3-5 page project summary is to be submitted to PTU. This summary can include:

  1. Objective (1/2 page)
  2. Summary Facts & Analysis (1-2 pages)
  3. Conclusions (1-2 pages)
  4. Summary of how this information can be useful for Humanistic Society (1/2 page)
  5. Sum-Up (1/2 page)


In the report, no adjectives are expected – all descriptions should be precise and focused.



Social Internship

The idea of social internship is similar to projects, to observe what is and share the observations in the form of a brief report.


Following steps might be needed for starting the Social Intership


1. Collect proposals for social internships from different Resource   Persons (by beginning of Jan. 2013).


2. Decide which proposals are accepted (by Jan end 2013).


3. For each proposal, help the Resource Persons to organise a 1-2   day workshop of teachers interested in helping with the social   internship (in Feb/Mar 2013).


4. Float the list of social internships among students, and ask the   students to register as an option not compulsary (in early Apr 2013).


5. Conduct a 1-2 day workshop for students (after the exams.) for each   proposal, which starts the social internship.


(I have put some tentative dates, which may be suitably modified.)




Some possible centers for One Month Social Internship in Punjab – for Teachers and Students are (Sample List):

  1. Kheti virasat, Shri Anandpur Sahib.
  2. Riarki College, Guruhargobindpur.
  3. Pingalwara Trust, Sri Amritsar Sahib.
  4. Nirmal Kutia, Sultanpur Lodhi.
  5. Women action for ecology.


Some possible centers for One Month Social Internship outside Punjab – for Teachers and Students are (Sample List):

1.     Surendra Singh Ji, Alwar                                                      -           Sustainable Dev

2.     IIIT Hyderabad                                                                     -           Education & Research

3.     Maanviya Shiksha Sansthan Sansthan (MS3), Kanpur            -           Universal Human Order

4.     Society for Integrated Development of Himalayas (SIDH)

Mussourie                                                                           -           Education & Research

5.     Auroville, Poducherry                                                          -           Green Architecture



Prof Vinay Kumar Pathak